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#: 231 - 240

# Name
Year
Country
Science
achievements
231 Charles_Glover_Barkla_640.jpg
Charles Glover Barkla

1877-1944
United Kingdom
Physics

discovered that every chemical element, when irradiated by x rays, can emit an x-ray spectrum of two line-groups, which he named the K-series and L-series, that are of fundamental importance to understanding atomic structure
232 Johannes_Stark_649.jpg
Johannes Stark

1874-1957
Germany
Physics

discovered splitting of spectral lines in a strong electric field
233 Georges_Sagnac_664.jpg
Georges Sagnac

1869-1928
France
Physics

Sagnac effect; X-ray fluorescence
234 Pieter_Zeeman_672.jpg
Pieter Zeeman

1865-1943
Netherlands
Physics

discovered splitting of spectral lines in a strong magnetic field
235 Wilhelm_Wien_673.jpg
Wilhelm Wien

1864-1928
Germany
Physics

discovered laws governing radiation of heat
236 Marcel_Brillouin_692.jpg
Marcel Brillouin

1854-1948
France
Physics

built a new model of the Eotvos balance; Helmholtz flow and the stability of aircraft; theory of the tides
237 Janne_Rydberg_693.jpg
Janne Rydberg

1854-1919
Sweden
Physics

analyzed the spectra of many elements; discovered many line series were described by a formula that depended on a universal constant (the Rydberg constant)
238 John_Henry_Poynting_700.jpg
John Henry Poynting

1852-1914
United Kingdom
Physics

demonstrated that the energy flow of electromagnetic waves could be calculated by an equation (now called Poynting's vector)
239 George_Francis_FitzGerald_703.jpg
George Francis FitzGerald

1851-1901
Ireland
Physics

hypothesized foreshortening of moving bodies (Lorentz-FitzGerald contraction) to explain the result of the Michelson-Morley experiment
240 Oliver_Heaviside_704.jpg
Oliver Heaviside

1850-1925
United Kingdom
Physics

contributed to the development of electromagnetism; introduced operational calculus and invented the modern notation for vector calculus; predicted existence of the Heaviside layer (a layer of the Earth's ionosphere)

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