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名称 年 国家 科学 
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231 

Charles Glover Barkla
18771944 联合王国 物理

discovered that every chemical element, when irradiated by x rays, can emit an xray spectrum of two linegroups, which he named the Kseries and Lseries, that are of fundamental importance to understanding atomic structure

232 

Johannes Stark
18741957 德 物理

discovered splitting of spectral lines in a strong electric field





233 

Georges Sagnac
18691928 法国的 物理

Sagnac effect; Xray fluorescence

234 

Pieter Zeeman
18651943 荷兰 物理

discovered splitting of spectral lines in a strong magnetic field

235 

Wilhelm Wien
18641928 德 物理

discovered laws governing radiation of heat

236 

Marcel Brillouin
18541948 法国的 物理

built a new model of the Eotvos balance; Helmholtz flow and the stability of aircraft; theory of the tides

237 

Janne Rydberg
18541919 瑞典 物理

analyzed the spectra of many elements; discovered many line series were described by a formula that depended on a universal constant (the Rydberg constant)

238 

John Henry Poynting
18521914 联合王国 物理

demonstrated that the energy flow of electromagnetic waves could be calculated by an equation (now called Poynting's vector)

239 

George Francis FitzGerald
18511901 爱尔兰 物理

hypothesized foreshortening of moving bodies (LorentzFitzGerald contraction) to explain the result of the MichelsonMorley experiment

240 

Oliver Heaviside
18501925 联合王国 物理

contributed to the development of electromagnetism; introduced operational calculus and invented the modern notation for vector calculus; predicted existence of the Heaviside layer (a layer of the Earth's ionosphere)
