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#: 391 - 400

# Name
Year
Country
Science
achievements
391 Henry_Norris_Russell_1673.jpg
Henry Norris Russell

1877-1957
USA
Astronomy

used photographic methods to measure stellar parallaxes, leading to the discovery of the relationship between absolute magnitude and spectral types of stars; a plot of this relationship is now called a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (or H-R diagram)
392 Bernhard_Schmidt_1674.jpg
Bernhard Schmidt

1879-1935
Sweden
Astronomy

invented and constructed the first Schmidt reflecting telescope using a corrector plate he devised to eliminate aberration of the image
393 Arthur_S._Eddington_1675.jpg
Arthur Eddington

1882-1944
United Kingdom
Astronomy

first to confirm Einstein's prediction that light will bend near a star; discovered the mass-luminosity relation for stars; theoretically explained the pulsation of Cepheid variables
394 Harlow_Shapley_1676.jpg
Harlow Shapley

1885-1972
USA
Astronomy

discovered the size of our galaxy and the direction of its center by studying the distribution of globular clusters; determined the orbits of many eclipsing binary stars
395 Edwin_Hubble_1677.jpg
Edwin Hubble

1889-1953
USA
Astronomy

first to measure distance to the Andromeda nebula, establishing it to be a separate galaxy; later measured distances to other galaxies and discovered that they recede at a rate proportional to their distance (Hubble's law)
396 Walter_Baade_1678.jpg
Walter Baade

1893-1960
Germany
Astronomy

discovered the asteroids Hidalgo and Icarus; established two different stellar classes: the younger, hotter ``Population I'' and the older, cooler ``Population II''
397 Georges-Henri_Lemaitre_1679.jpg
Georges-Henri Lemaitre

1894-1966
Belgium
Astronomy

advanced idea that the Universe originated as a small, dense ``cosmic egg'' that exploded and set its expansion into motion
398 Rudolph_Minkowski_1680.jpg
Rudolph Minkowski

1895-1976
Germany
Astronomy

divided supernovae into Types I and II; optically identified many of the early radio sources
399 Bernard-Ferdinand_Lyot_1681.jpg
Bernard-Ferdinand Lyot

1897-1952
France
Astronomy

invented the coronagraph
400 Otto_Struve_1682.jpg
Otto Struve

1897-1963
Russia
Astronomy

made detailed spectroscopic studies of close binary stars; discovered interstellar matter (H II regions)

Ultimo aggiornamento: 2017-11-24

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