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The Greatest Scientists

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Astronomy - Chemistry - Computer science - Earth Science - Geography - Inventions - ... - Physics

Science: Astronomy

# Name
Year
Country
Science
achievements
1 Nicolaus_Copernicus_1619.jpg
Nicolaus Copernicus

1473-1543
Poland
Astronomy

developed a simple heliocentric model of the solar system that explained planetary retrograde motion and overturned Greek astronomy
2 John_Babtist_Riccioli_1624.jpg
John Babtist Riccioli

1598-1671
Italy
Astronomy

made telescopic lunar studies and published detailed lunar maps in which he introduced much nomenclature for lunar objects; discovered the first double star (Mizar)
3 Edmond_Halley_1628.jpg
Edmond Halley

1656-1742
United Kingdom
Astronomy

used his theory of cometary orbits to predict that the comet of 1682 (later named ``Halley's comet'') was periodic
4 William_Herschel_1631.jpg
William Herschel

1738-1822
United Kingdom
Astronomy

discovered Uranus and its two brightest moons, Titania and Oberon; discovered Saturn's moons, Mimas and Enceladus; discovered the ice caps of Mars, several asteroids and binary stars; cataloged 2,500 deep sky objects
5 Tycho_Brahe_1621.jpg
Tycho Brahe

1546-1601
Denmark
Astronomy

observed a supernova now known as ``Tycho's supernova''; made the most precise observations of stellar and planetary positions then known
6 Giovanni_Cassini_1625.jpg
Giovanni Cassini

1625-1712
Italy
Astronomy

measured rotational periods of Jupiter and Mars; discovered four satellites of Saturn and the gap in Saturn's rings now known as ``Cassini's division''
7 Charles_Messier_1629.jpg
Charles Messier

1730-1817
France
Astronomy

discovered 19 comets, 13 being original and 6 independent co-discoveries; compiled a famous catalog of deep-sky objects
8 Giuseppe_Piazzi_1632.jpg
Giuseppe Piazzi

1746-1826
Italy
Astronomy

discovered the largest asteroid, Ceres; accurately measured positions of many stars, resulting in a star catalog
9 Johann_Bode_1633.jpg
Johann Bode

1747-1826
Germany
Astronomy

popularized a relationship giving planetary distances from the Sun, which became known as ``Bode's law''; predicted an undiscovered planet between Mars and Jupiter, where the asteroids were later found
10 Sir_George_Airy_1644.jpg
Sir George Airy

1801-1892
United Kingdom
Astronomy

improved orbital theory of Venus and the Moon; studied interference fringes in optics; made a mathematical study of the rainbow

Last updated: 2017-11-22

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