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Tên Năm Nước Khoa Học 
Thành Tựu 
171 

Frank Wilczek
1951 Mỹ Vật Lý

codiscovered ``asymptotic freedom'' in nonAbelian gauge theories; contributed to the study of ``anyons'' (particlelike excitations in twodimensional systems that obey ``fractional statistics'')

172 

Steven Chu
1948 Mỹ Vật Lý

developed the Doppler cooling method of using laser light (optical molasses) to cool gases and capturing the chilled atoms in a magnetooptical trap (MOT)

173 

Nathan Isgur
19472001 Mỹ Vật Lý

contributed to understanding the quark structure of baryon resonances; discovered a new symmetry of nature that describes the behavior of heavy quarks





174 

Gerd Binnig
1947 Đức Vật Lý

codesigned the scanning tunneling microscope (STM), a type of microscope in which a fine conducting probe is held close the surface of a sample

175 

Howard Georgi
1947 Mỹ Vật Lý

codeveloped the SU(5) and SO(10) grand unified theories of all elementary particle forces; developed the modern QCDinspired quark model; helped develop the modern theory of perturbative QCD

176 

John Forbes Nash, Jr.
1928 Mỹ Toán Học

Nash embedding theorem

177 

Klaus von Klitzing
1943 Đức Vật Lý

discovered the quantized Hall effect

178 

Benjamin Banneker
17311806 Mỹ Toán Học

Calculating a solar eclipse

179 

Toshihide Maskawa
1940 Nhật Bản Vật Lý

contributed to theoretical understanding of CPviolation; codiscovered the origin of the broken symmetry that predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks

180 

Michael Stonebraker
0
Khoa Học Máy Tính

Researcher at MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) who revolutionized the field of database management systems (DBMSs) and founded multiple successful database companies
