# 

Name Year Country Science 
achievements 
1 

Isaac Newton
16431727 United Kingdom Physics, Astronomy

developed theories of gravitation and mechanics, and invented differential calculus

2 

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
16461716 Germany Mathematics, Physics

Infinitesimal calculus

3 

Blaise Pascal
16231662 France Physics, Mathematics, Computer science

discovered that pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted undiminished to every part of the fluid and to the walls of its container (Pascal's principle)

4 

Galileo Galilei
15641642 Italy Astronomy, Physics, Inventions

performed fundamental observations, experiments, and mathematical analyses in astronomy and physics; discovered mountains and craters on the moon, the phases of Venus, and the four largest satellites of Jupiter: Io, Europa, Callisto, and Ganymede

5 

Johannes Kepler
15711630 Germany Astronomy, Physics

established the most exact astronomical tables then known; established the three laws of planetary motion

6 

Gottfried Leibniz
16461716 Germany Computer science, Philosophy, Mathematics

Made advances in symbolic logic, such as the Calculus ratiocinator, that were heavily influential on Gottlob Frege. Made developments in firstorder predicate calculus that were crucial for the theoretical foundations of computer science. (1670)

7 

Descartes
15961650 France Mathematics

Cartesian coordinate system

8 

Robert Hooke
16351703 United Kingdom Physics, Biology, Chemistry

discovered Hooke's law of elasticity; Coined the term cell

9 

Robert Boyle
16271691 Ireland Physics, Chemistry

Father of Modern Chemistry; Boyles Law

10 

Pierre de Fermat
16011665 France Mathematics

Fermat's Last Theorem
